I'm posting this because I've just found the solution to a really silly little issue basically without the help of any of the online discussions I was able to find.
The issue was installing the 'vegan' package in R on Arch Linux. All the errors are versions of
make: command not found
This is of course appearing because you don't have the 'make' command installed, so the R package 'vegan' and it's prerequisite 'rgl' won't work without it. To fix this you need to type the following:
pacman -S base-devel
pacman -S gcc
pacman -S gcc-fortran
The make command for bash is in the base-devel group, the one for C+ is in gcc, and the one for fortran is in gcc-fortran.